The bottom left corner of the phase diagram for carbon has not been scrutinized experimentally. The missing or additional atoms warp the sheets into spheres, ellipses, or cylinders. The properties of fullerenes split into buckyballs, buckytubes, and nanobuds have not yet been fully analyzed and represent an intense area of research in nanomaterials. The names “fullerene” and “buckyball” are given after Richard Buckminster Fuller , popularizer of geodesic domes , which resemble the structure of fullerenes. The buckyballs are fairly large molecules formed completely of carbon bonded trigonally, forming spheroids the best-known and simplest is the soccerball-shaped C60 buckminsterfullerene. It consists of a low-density cluster-assembly of carbon atoms strung together in a loose three-dimensional web, in which the atoms are bonded trigonally in six- and seven-membered rings. Linear acetylenic carbon  has the chemical structure  – C Carbon in this modification is linear with sp orbital hybridization , and is a polymer with alternating single and triple bonds. Q-carbon is reported to exhibit ferromagetism, fluorescence , and a hardness superior to diamonds. Penny is included for scale.
The residence time of CO2 in the atmosphere is …. 33 years?
This has changed over the past few decades because of the dramatic advances in digital imaging technologies and computer power. One of the best examples of this was the computer artistry of Ray Downing, whose digital re-creation of Jesus based on the Shroud was documented in “The Real Face of Jesus” program that appeared on the History Channel. In the past few years, digital artists around the world have been able to render their own interpretations of how Jesus may have appeared based on the Shroud and these show up from time to time on the internet.
However, throughout all those years, not one artist has attempted to create an interpretation of what Mary, Mother of Jesus looked like based on the Shroud image.
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Available books are clearly labeled and many include online reviews. Just click on the title link to go directly to the page where you can purchase the book. Books are listed alphabetically, by title. The status of those titles available for purchase online is indicated where available. Just click on the title and follow the instructions for ordering. A link for each book available from Amazon. Some books are classified as “Hard To Find” and may require waiting up to three months for delivery so I have only included a few in that category.
Rogers Available directly from Lulu. Rogers was the head of the chemistry experiments for the Shroud of Turin Research Project STURP , the team of twenty-four researchers that performed the first ever in-depth scientific examination of the controversial relic in He was a professional chemist for fifty-two years and spent thirty-five years as a research chemist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, until his retirement in He continued his research after the STURP project concluded, but set his studies aside in frustration as unqualified “experts” presented what he considered poor quality and non-scientific “evidence” for the authenticity of the Shroud in the popular media.
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Realize game as well as the upcoming fandisk, Future Blessings. A town caged by nature, Okunezato. One year ago in this town, her older brother suddenly disappeared without a trace.
Production[ edit ] In , the worldwide production capacity for acetone was estimated at 6. In the cumene process, benzene is alkylated with propylene to produce cumene , which is oxidized by air to produce phenol and acetone: Other processes involve the direct oxidation of propylene Wacker-Hoechst process , or the hydration of propylene to give 2-propanol , which is oxidized to acetone. It is used for thinning polyester resin, cleaning tools used with it, and dissolving two-part epoxies and superglue before they harden.
It is used as one of the volatile components of some paints and varnishes. As a heavy-duty degreaser, it is useful in the preparation of metal prior to painting. It is also useful for high reliability soldering applications to remove rosin flux after soldering is complete; this helps to prevent the rusty bolt effect. Acetone is used as a solvent by the pharmaceutical industry and as a denaturant in denatured alcohol. Vessels containing a porous material are first filled with acetone followed by acetylene, which dissolves into the acetone.
One liter of acetone can dissolve around liters of acetylene at a pressure of 10 bar. It begins with the initial conversion of acetone to acetone cyanohydrin: In a subsequent step, the nitrile is hydrolyzed to the unsaturated amide , which is esterified: Bisphenol A is a component of many polymers such as polycarbonates , polyurethanes , and epoxy resins.
The synthesis involves the condensation of acetone with phenol:
Fees for Radiocarbon Analyses
Is the Shroud of Turin Real? Or is it a forgery in a long line of ‘pious frauds? The Shroud of Turin is a world-famous piece of cloth alleged to have been the burial garment of Jesus Christ. The shroud is held up by believers as evidence not only of Christ’s existence but also of his divinity. But is the shroud real?
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Don’t let anyone try to convince you that there is a Strat Plus, they just did not exist. It was owned by a former Fender employee who recently passed away. The strings, I am certain, were the original from 87, as they were rusty and hard to pull through the nut. I have owned ‘s of Strat Plus’, as well as helping s of people to identify their guitars. I also saw where Shell Pink was listed as an available color from Fender in color code 56 but not in any of the Strat Plus brochures.
This is the oldest Strat Plus I have come across yet, as it came off the assembly-line July 27th, ! Scroll up to see John’s Custom Shop work log. The backs of the pickups do not even have any stickers with the part or patent numbers. Instead they are hand scribed most likely done by Jeff Lace when in high school. The numbers on the pickups indicate the order which they were manufactured!
Age and legality of ivory revealed by carbon-14 dating can fight poachers
Looking back to September His reference to the extinction of the Southern D1 class relates to the Stroudley T not the Wainwright It is a good reminder of Trains Illustrated a few copies of which are usually available at Weybourne Station.
The cheapest way to use a car in France & Europe, for over 17 days, is normally the Tax Free car lease leasing program. Car Lease – Leasing is an ideal low cost .
Qumran Qumran cave 4, where ninety percent of the scrolls were found The Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in a series of twelve caves around the site known as Wadi Qumran near the Dead Sea in the West Bank of the Jordan River between and by Bedouin shepherds and a team of archeologists. Initial discovery — [ edit ] The initial discovery, by Bedouin shepherd Muhammed edh-Dhib, his cousin Jum’a Muhammed, and Khalil Musa, took place between November and February Trever reconstructed the story of the scrolls from several interviews with the Bedouin.
Edh-Dhib’s cousin noticed the caves, but edh-Dhib himself was the first to actually fall into one the cave now called Cave 1. He retrieved a handful of scrolls, which Trever identifies as the Isaiah Scroll , Habakkuk Commentary , and the Community Rule , and took them back to the camp to show to his family. None of the scrolls were destroyed in this process, despite popular rumor. At some point during this time, the Community Rule was split in two.
The Bedouin first took the scrolls to a dealer named Ibrahim ‘Ijha in Bethlehem. Undaunted, the Bedouin went to a nearby market, where a Syrian Christian offered to buy them.
C14 Dating (USA) PC
As scientists will often claim something to be millions or billions of years old ages that do not conform to the Biblical account of the age of the earth , Christians are often left wondering about the accuracy of the carbon method. Carbon is an unstable, radioactive isotope of carbon As with any radioactive isotope, carbon decays over time. The half-life of carbon 14 is approximate 5, years. That means if you took one pound of percent carbon , in 5, years, you would only have half a pound left.
Welcome to the Shroud of Turin Website Store. Here you will find a variety of Shroud of Turin materials available from a number of different sources. Note that items from the Barrie M. Schwortz Collection can be purchased directly from this website using a credit/debit card. On January 1, , the ownership of this collection was formally and legally transferred to the Shroud of Turin.
This makes for an excellent experience for the visitors to the various Shroud centers, but there was never a simple way to make these available directly to individuals. In the past, we could provide the custom made transparencies, but the purchaser then had to construct or have constructed a custom lightbox that would provide even backlighting for proper display of the transparency. This was always a costly and difficult proposition, since the lightboxes had to be rather deep and large to be effective.
But that was then, and this is now! Technology has finally caught up with the need, thanks to Ph. In fact, once you unpack the frame, you simply attach your own hanging wire, hang it up and plug it in. However, please write to us first with your shipping address since we will need to get a specific shipping quote for all orders outside the continental U. These are exactly the same transparencies as those that appear at Shroud Centers around the world, only smaller.
The backlighting system operates using a thin, light colored 15′ power cable attached to a small transformer at the plug end. You simply hang it up and plug it in! And each frame is equipped with an inline dimmer that allows you to adjust and control the brightness of the backlight display. Of course, now my biggest frustration is that the photographs I am including below do not even come close to capturing the effect of seeing one of the actual backlit transparencies with your own eyes!
I think you will find these as amazing as I do! Over the years, many people also requested that we offer a Dorsal view to match the Ventral one.
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Introduction Radiocarbon, or Carbon dating, was developed by W. It is perhaps one of the most widely used and best known absolute dating methods and has become an indispensable part of an archaeologist’s tool-kit. In , Libby was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for radiocarbon dating. This will enable the reader to gain an appreciation of the advantages and disadvantages of this process.
To be continued. 4th of Noveber Eric van der Velde finished his very nice and compact uTracer! Dear Marie-Jose and Ronald, My first tube project was building a phone preamp with 3 times ECC
Not to mention that billions of dollars of public policies depend on getting this right either. I hear that one I did will be ready sometime. When the documentary interview happened in our kitchen, we noticed something interesting. We felt the film crew, a producer and two camera people dressed trendy, mainly in black, straight from Ultimo central casting arrived expecting to find paid hacks, or slow moving ideologues who struggled to get a grip.
But they had been hearing for years how we are evil shills for big tobacco and oil interests who were cynically only in it for the money. Then the interview happened. For two hours we presented evidence, determined to show graphs from respectable sources like NASA, photographs of actual thermometers, and had answers to absolutely everything and then some with details of scientific stuff like feedbacks and clouds. I took the predictable ad homs about funding, and turned the tables completely — we were the unfunded volunteers working for professional and patriotic duty against a wall of billions of dollars, while they lost data, hid methods, and called us names.
I suppose they noticed we were a tad passionate, not cynical shills. Meanwhile Anna Rose came armed with print outs from DeSmog or Exxon secrets or some such and clearly had no idea of the science beyond the rudimentary: She lived and breathed the postmodern view of science climate scientists are the new Pope. Sometime during this process the documentary crew started treating us with respect. After the interview, they even wanted to speak to us, not just the perfunctory things the situation demanded.
Is the Shroud of Turin Real?
July 1, , University of Utah This African elephant has what are believed to be the biggest tusks among elephants at Kenya’s Samburu National Reserve. Illegal poaching of some 30, elephants a year for their ivory tusks threatens the animals with extinction. University of Utah geochemists developed a new way to fight poaching of elephants, hippos, rhinos and other animals.
Carbon from s and s nuclear weapons tests was and still is deposited in animals’ tusks or teeth, and those carbon levels reveal the year an animal died, and thus whether the ivory was taken before or after international bans on ivory trading.
Raymond N. Rogers was the head of the chemistry experiments for the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), the team of twenty-four researchers that performed the first ever in-depth scientific examination of the controversial relic in
The segments of the body are organized into three distinctive but interconnected units, or tagmata: The thorax is made up of three segments: Each thoracic segment supports one pair of legs. The meso- and metathoracic segments may each have a pair of wings , depending on the insect. The abdomen consists of eleven segments, though in a few species of insects, these segments may be fused together or reduced in size.
The abdomen also contains most of the digestive , respiratory , excretory and reproductive internal structures. Segmentation[ edit ] The head is enclosed in a hard, heavily sclerotized, unsegmented, exoskeletal head capsule, or epicranium , which contains most of the sensing organs, including the antennae, ocellus or eyes, and the mouthparts. Of all the insect orders, Orthoptera displays the most features found in other insects, including the sutures and sclerites.
In prognathous insects, the vertex is not found between the compound eyes, but rather, where the ocelli are normally. In some species, this region is modified and assumes a different name. The anterior segment, closest to the head, is the prothorax, with the major features being the first pair of legs and the pronotum. The middle segment is the mesothorax, with the major features being the second pair of legs and the anterior wings. The third and most posterior segment, abutting the abdomen, is the metathorax, which features the third pair of legs and the posterior wings.
Each segment is dilineated by an intersegmental suture.
Waikato Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory
Saturday, 19 January, , Marine scientists say archaeological remains discovered 36 metres feet underwater in the Gulf of Cambay off the western coast of India could be over 9, years old. The vast city – which is five miles long and two miles wide – is believed to predate the oldest known remains in the subcontinent by more than 5, years. The site was discovered by chance last year by oceanographers from India’s National Institute of Ocean Technology conducting a survey of pollution.
Using sidescan sonar – which sends a beam of sound waves down to the bottom of the ocean they identified huge geometrical structures at a depth of ft.
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Posted on September 3, by Roger Andrews By Roger Andrews An important consideration in estimating future greenhouse warming risks is how long CO2 remains in the atmosphere. Here I present the results of a simple mass balance model that provides a near-perfect fit between CO2 emissions and observed atmospheric CO2 using a CO2 residence time of 33 years. CO2 Residence Time Estimates data: Jennifer Marohasy I developed the mass balance model using the following deductions and assumptions: Between and fossil fuel burning and deforestation released approximately 1.
We can therefore assume, all other things being equal, that about half of the CO2 emitted between and has remained in the atmosphere and that the other half has been absorbed, either by vegetation or by the oceans. The half of the CO2 that was absorbed was absorbed over time in accordance with an exponential decay curve of the form: Mathematically it works out to 0.
The residence time remains constant. It does not change with time. The value that gives the best fit to observed CO2 concentrations provides the best estimate of residence time.